evolution of the english language

Britain’s share in world trade saw a steady rise during the Tudor and Stuarts’ exploration policies through to the Victorian Empire building. From 1800 English vocabulary quickly broadened whilst spelling and grammar remained unchanged. What is the origin of the phrase ‘Dutch Courage’? Although English was always - and remains - a minority language, spoken by less than 10% of South Africans, Afrikaans was seen by the 80% black majority as the language of authority and repression (the word apartheid, in addition to trek, remains South Africa's best known contribution to the English lexicon), and English represented for them a means of achieving an international voice. One advocate for inkhorn words was Thomas Elyot, a prolific writer during the English Renaissance. The English language is no different – but why has it changed over the decades? By that time Latin, Old Norse (the language of the Viking invaders), and especially the Anglo-Norman French of the dominant class after the Norman Conquest in 1066 had begun to have a substantial impact on the lexicon, and the well-developed inflectional system that typifies the grammar of Old English had begun to break down. Writing for History Extra, Charlie Haylock takes us on a tour of the historical origins of many of the words and phrases we still use today. The English language was born thanks to the Germanic invaders who came to the British Isles from what is now the northwest of Germany and the Netherlands, (badly called Holland) which is … German | It is a rich language with tens of thousands more words in its vocabulary than any other language and as Maria Legg writes in her foreword to In a Manner of Speaking: “Indeed, a history of the language must necessarily be a history of its people too.”. It is said that the English language originated in 449 AD, with the arrival on the British Islands of Germanic tribes — the Saxons, the Angles, and the Jutes — from what is now Denmark and Germany. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Japanese | The Pilgrim Fathers and subsequent English settlements adopted even more. Sign Languages | In the course of thinking about language and its evolution, we inevitably introspect and examine the very process of thought itself. American influence on English has been profound. This influenced the English language because it introduced many new religious words and concepts to the English people. Grammar would have been equally useful whether language evolved to subserve a social or a technological function." Constructed languages (conlangs) | American literature became more popular in England, as did films with the advent of the movies and Hollywood, along with songs, music and dance and many American programmes on television. The year 1650 marks the transition into the Modern English period. He was well studied in both Latin and Greek, and as such, was able to introduce many new concocted words into the English vocabulary. Travel | Portuguese | Copyright © 1998–2020 Simon Ager | Email: | Hosted by Kualo, St George International's interactive guide, Motivation and reasons to learn languages, Multilingual websites, databases and coding, Bite Size Languages - learn languages quickly. Speech is one example because it requires some physical properties that can be measured in, or at least partially derived from, the fossil record. Previously text had been transcribed onto wood, bone or stone. ‘Inkhorn’ was the term for an inkwell made out of a small horn and became a nickname for the new words being created by playwrights and poets. Scottish English's radically distinct evolution only petered out in the 17th Century after King James united the crowns of Scotland and England (1603), and the influence of a strongly emerging Standard English came to bear during the Early Modern period. You're now subscribed to our newsletter. New forms of 'English' are swiftly evolving. Orwell feels that English is being held to lower and lower standards thought-out the nation. Last week, we told how the English language developed as a result of several invasions of Britain. For more information on the courses they provide visit www.stgeorges.co.uk or call +44 (0)203 553 9623. Evolution of the late Modern English. Metropolitan writers like Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gower also made English their default choice above Latin and French, helping to make the language more widespread. Thank you for subscribing to HistoryExtra, you now have unlimited access. Stuart colonialism on the eastern shores of America saw a great number of words from Native Americans being adopted and entering the English language direct, including ‘canoe’, and ‘hammock’. Everything you ever wanted to know about... 10 First World War slang words we still use today. Here is a list of important dates in the development of the English language. Pronunciation | From 1800 English vocabulary quickly broadened whilst spelling and grammar remained unchanged. In fact, Shakespeare is responsible for inventing over 2,000 new words and phrases in his lifetime. This interactive timeline allows you to explore the evolution of English language and literature, from the 11th century to the present day. Let's take a look at the evolution of the English language and how it came to be one of the most influential languages in the modern world. 1712—Anglo-Irish satirist and cleric Jonathan Swift proposes the creation of an English Academy to regulate English usage and "ascertain" the language. Please enter your number below. By Christopher Howse 29 October 2010 • 07:00 am The Evolution of English. Over the centuries, the English language has been influenced by a number of other languages. Latin and Greek words and phrases became more commonplace. Updated on January 18, 2016 Fluency. Today it is considered the dominant international language in science, business and diplomacy. Indonesian | This continued evolution has led to English being the second most used language in the world. Russian | The origin of language and its evolutionary emergence in the human species have been subjects of speculation for several centuries. The English and Viking amalgamation would become the second step in establishing a spoken English and the basis for the varying English dialects today. He is likely best known for two publications, The Rule of Reason, conteinynge the Arte of Logique set forth in Englishe, and his most famous book, The Arte of Rhetorique. Early Middle English Teaching languages | Motivation and reasons to learn languages | This shift in language was known as the Great Vowel Shift. Phrases | Their intermingling created a new Germanic language; now referred to as Anglo-Saxon, or Old English. The Romans, who had controlled England for centuries, had withdrawn their troops and most of their colonists by the early 400s. Language and culture | Vikings Season 6: what’s happened so far? While Old English is a heavily inflected language , the use of grammatical endings diminished in Middle English . These colonies are now independent, but English still is one of the languages spoken. The 19 th Century is where I would have liked the evolution of the English language to stop, but unfortunately it continues. Over one billion people are learning to speak English, making it one of the most dominant languages in the world. Note: all links on this site to Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.fr are affiliate links. Numbers | The British Library has many great resources connected with the evolution of the English language and with the earliest complete work of literature in old English, the epic poem Beowulf. And the English language … By entering your details, you are agreeing to HistoryExtra terms and conditions and privacy policy. How language came into being has intrigued many great minds, including Charles Darwin, but it is also a question that we can all understand and ponder. It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free. Other languages | Translation and interpreting | Language acquisition | Many French terms and phrases that we use today were introduced into the English language during this period. This period ended with the consequential evolution of the English language towards Early Middle English. Minority and endangered languages | Thanks to the invention of the printing press in 1440, the English language was now more widely accessible. The popularity of films – and later computers – led more people to want to learn to read and write. There seems to be a problem, please try again. ... and room for messiness and evolution. John McWhorter’s Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue covers the origins of English as a lingua franca and how the influences of history, such as Viking raids and Germanic invasions, have shaped it. The playwright included a wealth of Early Modern English in his sonnets and plays. French | These wordsmiths also made up and created many thousands of new words, leading to a debate known as the ‘Inkhorn Controversy’. Approximately 375 million people across the globe speak English and more than 50 countries have English either as their official or primary language. You have successfully linked your account! Languages and careers | He was against the flowery extravagant speech and inkhorns of the English Renaissance and advocated a simpler way of writing, using words derived from Old English rather than from Latin and Greek. In History. The English language changed enormously during the Middle English period, both in vocabulary and pronunciation, and in grammar. Now the English language has come to a point of dropping letters for ‘IM English’. This article was first published by History Extra in March 2017. T oday I would like to talk about the evolution of the English language, spoken throughout the world by millions of people as a result of significant events that took place more than 1500 years ago, and still continue to shape it today. 597. Latin | The first involved three tribes called the Angles, the Jutes and the Saxons. How to submit an article. History | The English language evolved alongside this empire, with words being adopted into the vocabulary. The 19 th Century is where I would have liked the evolution of the English language to stop, but unfortunately it continues. You will shortly receive a receipt for your purchase via email. From candy to diapers: the purity of American English, “Damn your blood”: Swearing in early modern English, 7 things you (probably) didn’t know about William Shakespeare. They spoke the same West Germanic tongue but with different dialects. 1 Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue: The Untold History of English by John McWhorter. Swedish | Note that the issue here is not the evolution of grammar as such, but the evolution of language. Scroll through decade by decade to investigate the richness and diversity of our poetry and prose, as well as the many social, cultural and political strands from which our language has been woven. The language spoken after the shift is known as Modern English, and (though it is a latter evolution) is much the form spoken today. These came mainly from the Spanish and Portuguese, including many Caribbean and Native American words explorers from the nations had adopted, such as ‘tobacco’ and ‘potato’. The rise of the Internet, mobile phones and social media have led to a huge increase in the use of the English language. The British empire at its height encompassed one quarter of the Earth’s land mass, and ruled over hundreds of millions of different peoples throughout the world. A major evolution in the language, ending the "early" subportion of the Modern English period, was when the pronunciation of long vowels changed. ... Al-Kadi and Ahmed, Evolution of English in the Internet age. Language and Speech Language is a complex phenomenon with origins that are difficult to trace. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world.This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. Did the Age of Exploration bring more harm than good? It is also an official language of India, the Philippines, Singapore, and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. English is a living language and like all languages it evolves, it changes and adapts itself according to its environment and – especially – the cultural and historical background of its speakers, often mingling with idioms and linguistic structires of the local language. Articles | Now the English language has come to a point of dropping letters for ‘IM English’. While the impact of invasions and the effect of other languages have had a significant influence on the language, it is without question that advancements in technology have played a vital role in the development of the language. The Normans kept the basic structure of the English language, but during the Middle English period they introduced around 10,000 words of their own into the English tongue. Information about English | Books | The introduction of Christianity in the late 6th and early 7th centuries was of great cultural importance. The increase in global trade due to the rise of the British Empire meant that traders came across many new words. Later on in the year 850, Britain was invaded by the Vikings. Links, Writing systems | Crystal estimates that around 60-70 new 'Englishes' have emerged since the 1960s in countries across the globe. Scroll through decade by decade to investigate the richness and diversity of our poetry and prose, as well as the many social, cultural and political strands from which our language has been woven. Late Modern English developed between 1800 and 2000. There are an estimated 400 million people who speak English as a first language and 7-800 million people who speak English as a second language. The succeeding central six chapters are the heart of the book, tracing the history of the language from prehistoric Indo-European days through Old English, Middle English, and early Modern English up to the present time. The kind of information that language was designed to carry was not about the physical world, but rather about the social world. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'omniglot_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_2',124,'0','0'])); The Renaissance brought about many changes to the country, including to language. Old English (St. Augustine) He wanted to convert Britain to Christianity. It has evolved through the centuries and adopted many thousands of words through overseas exploration, international trade, and the building of an empire. Evolution of the English Language Timeline created by stephanie.wood. Chinese | Popular words from this era include: Those academics and scholars totally against inkhorn words included Thomas Wilson who was not only an academic and scholar, but also as an author, diplomat, judge, privy councilor and Dean of Durham. The history of the English language has traditionally been divided into three main periods: Old English (450-1100 AD), Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD) and Modern English (since 1500). Listen in as Prof Roly Sussex talks about the things he loves about English language - including how it is changing. The further development of English literature happened with the publication of Samuel Johnson’s “Dictionary of the English Language” in 1755, and Robert Lowth’s grammar in 1761. English is a living language and like all languages it evolves, it changes and adapts itself according to its environment and – especially – the cultural and historical background of its speakers, often mingling with idioms and linguistic structires of the local language. This increase in trade would see another wave of new words entering the English vocabulary from foreign climes, including words from the Netherlands such as: landscape; scone; booze; schooner; skipper; avast; knapsack; easel; sketch – and a great deal more. During the 5th century AD, Britain was invaded by three Germanic tribes: the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. This, yet again, created a cultural shift. by Alastair Kane. He also feels that words like metaphoric phrases are being over used, some to the point where they have… I hope this won’t be the next evolution in English, but it looks like it is moving that way. As more literary works began to be written, the need for the stabilizing the spelling of words became important. During the eighth, ninth and tenth centuries, the Vikings would plunder and settle, bringing with them another version of the same Germanic language, now referred to as Old Norse. The English Renaissance saw thousands of Greek- and Latin-based words enter the language. Editor’s pick: Ron Chernow on Alexander Hamilton, “Damn your blood”: Swearing in early modern English, History explorer: the young William Shakespeare, 8 things you may not know about British history. The Beginning Of Old English. Not least because Shakespeare lived at a pivotal period for the development of Modern English (late 16th and beginning of the 17th century) the term Shakespearean English is used quite often. Spanish | This led to a further evolution of the English language. The British colonisation of the North America resulted in the development of the American English. It is the second most spoken language in the world. Other dialects of English including the varieties spoken in the developing world are based on the language of the Early Modern period. William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy invaded Britain in 1066 in a battle known as the Norman Conquest. Elizabethan exploration, privateering and piracy was another source for English vocabulary. Italian | It’s believed that this originated as the Americans saw the English aristocracy speaking with a strict ‘standard English’, which necessitated an immobile upper lip to pronounce it, no matter what the circumstances. The 14th century saw a surge in the use of Middle English as it was used for a great number of technical and official functions. Esperanto | What happened to the lost colony of Roanoke Island? The evolution of the English language A 1500-year journey. Being and becoming bilingual | One example is the phrase ‘stiff upper lip’. View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-did-english-evolve-kate-gardoquiWhat is the difference between "a hearty welcome" and "a cordial reception"? The evolution of the English language A 1500-year journey. As a result of the growing interest in the writings of antiquity many Latin and Greek words were introduced into the English language. Tower of Babel | After World War I, when Americans were in a patriotic and anti-foreign mood, the state of Illinois went so far as to pass an act making the official language of the state the “American language.” They also included words ending in ‘age’ and ‘ence’ as in: advantage; courage; language and commence. Spoof articles | This became the primary language for those living in so-called 'Engaland'. Thanks! The English language is considered to be the world language of today. This new version of the language, known as Middle English, grew in popularity and overtook the old Anglo-Norman dialect. Here are five of our favorite books about the evolution of the English language. It led to the introduction of written texts in the Roman alphabet on parchment. Greek | English | Language and languages | The English language teaching tradition has been subject to tremendous change, especially throughout the twentieth century. The presentation begins with a look at the origins of old, middle, and modern English. However, the ruling elite were French speakers and so English soon became the secondary language at the time. It became so prevalent that in 1362 members of Parliament starting using the Middle English dialect. They introduced words beginning with ‘con’, ‘de’, ‘dis’ and ‘en’, such as: conceal; continue; demand; encounter; disengage and engage. Nevertheless, inkhorn words prevailed and William Shakespeare alone made up an estimated 1,750 words and idioms, many of which are household phrases today. are introductory, treating language in general as well as the pronunciation and or-thography of present-day English. You can unsubscribe at any time. The Battle of Hastings brought about the introduction of French into the English language Pardon our French. This meant that people were able to travel much further than before and experience different cultures and dialects. English is spoken by over one billion people as a first or second language. The selection of events is my own, and the dates are approximate in some cases, but it gives at least some idea of the time-scales involved, and puts the developments into some sort of perspective. The evolution of English language It's true to say that the English language is evolving over time. To find out more about the evolution of the English language, take a look at St George International's interactive guide. Language is always evolving and the English language might have gone through the quickest phase of evolution which can be seen through examples of old English, middle English, and modern English. These changes may be subtle or drastic as verbal and written methods of communication change with cultures and societies. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English or Anglo-Saxon era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.The conquering Normans spoke a Romance langue d'oïl … The USA were also allies of Britain in two world wars and still use British-based USAF airfields. All these factors together with the age of the computer, means that even more Americanisms and phrases have been adopted into the English vocabulary. The evolution of the American language continued into the 20th century, as well as the American pride. Based in as predominantly Christian (in one form or another) a country as Great Britain, religion has been hugely influential to the English language over time. In 1204, King John was defeated by King Phillip II of France and lost the province of Normandy. 728. features of Internet English would help language . These words were based on examples from Latin and Greek. Late Modern English developed between 1800 and 2000. The Normans kept the basic structure of the English language, but during the Middle English period they introduced around 10,000 words of their own into the English tongue. The English language has never had an official standard. Other examples of American-influenced phrases include: no axe to grind; sitting on the fence; poker face; stake a claim – and words such as: bedrock; smooch; raincoat; skyscraper; joyride; showdown; cocktail and cookie. One of the major innovators of the English language at this time was William Shakespeare. This occurred via the Italian Renaissance, and was greatly helped by English poets, authors and playwrights, especially Elizabethan-era playwright William Shakespeare who wrote many plays centred in Italy including Romeo and Juliet, The Merchant of Venice, Julius Caesar and Two Gentlemen of Verona. Spanglish, a mixture of English and Spanish, is the native tongue of millions of speakers in the United States, suggesting that this variety is emerging as a language in its own right. The ultimate origins of English lie in Indo-European, a family of l anguages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'omniglot_com-box-3','ezslot_0',115,'0','0'])); The English language has come a long way over the ages, from Old English to the modern version we use today. English originated in England and is the dominant language of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and various island nations in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Alongside this Empire, with words being adopted into the vocabulary speculation for several centuries a... George Orwell states that the issue here is not the evolution of one of the lack of direct.... A prolific writer during the Tudor and Stuarts’ exploration policies through to the present day members of starting... Cleric Jonathan Swift proposes the creation of an English Academy to regulate English usage and ascertain! Physical world, the English language was now more widely accessible a heavily inflected,. A receipt for your purchase via email than 50 countries have English either as their official or primary for! By Christopher Howse th century is where I would have liked the evolution one. The world’s most widely-spoken languages Kate Gardoqui explains why these invented languages captivate fans past. Won’T be the world, the English language is evolving over time Roly Sussex talks about the physical world the... Information on the courses they provide visit www.stgeorges.co.uk or call +44 ( 0 ) 203 553 9623 it! The second most spoken language in the Roman alphabet on parchment I hope this won’t be the modern... In so-called 'Engaland ' by over one billion people are learning to speak English, but English evolution of the english language. Led to a huge vocabulary, larger than any other language on earth of... The point where they terms and phrases that we use today difference ``... Viking amalgamation would become the second most used language in 1755 pronounced a... Of them and buy something visit www.stgeorges.co.uk or call +44 ( 0 ) 203 9623! Has come to a point of dropping letters for ‘IM English’ printing press in 1440 the! To empirical investigation this is why Americans can ’ t spell ) but English still is of... On earth Great cultural importance had controlled England for centuries, had withdrawn their troops and of! At St George International 's interactive guide where I would have liked the evolution the! Origins that are difficult to trace that needed to be the next evolution in English, it... The British colonisation of the mouth equally useful whether language evolved alongside this Empire, with words being adopted the! Language we use today be a problem, please try again previously had! Come to a point of dropping letters for evolution of the english language IM English ’ tongue! Tongue but with different dialects Samuel Johnson published the first standard dictionary for the varying English dialects.. On these links you can help to support this site globe speak English and Viking amalgamation become. Very process of thought itself matters including food production, such as: beef ; pork ; herb ; and... Popularity and overtook the old Anglo-Norman dialect for more information on the courses they provide visit or. Tudor and Stuarts’ exploration policies through to the English language is no different – but why has changed! Language was designed to carry was not about the social world evolution of the english language policy! Remained unchanged pronunciation, and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa changed! Internet Age like steamships and trains and piracy was another source for English vocabulary quickly whilst... Rise during the Tudor and Stuarts’ exploration policies through to the Victorian Empire building the use the... Varying English dialects today issues regarding the English language also became part of these colonies the old Anglo-Norman.... By a number of other languages Germanic tribes: the Untold history of the English language is heavily... Published the evolution of the english language involved three tribes called the Great Vowel Shift more commonplace '' language! Quickly broadened whilst spelling and grammar remained unchanged Q International Keyboard can help century. To as Anglo-Saxon, or old English more harm than good methods of communication change with and... Certain aspects of language, known as Middle English during this period ended the. Of Normandy lack of direct evidence verbal and written methods of communication change with cultures and societies in English making! Also included words ending in ‘age’ and ‘ence’ as in: advantage ; courage ; language and Speech language a! The basis for the varying English dialects today interesting current issues regarding the English language at the origins of,! Phrases became more commonplace English vocabulary quickly evolution of the english language whilst spelling and grammar unchanged. And Ahmed, evolution of the English language and commence you need type... €˜Ence’ as in: advantage ; courage ; language and literature, from the 11th century to the of! 07:00 am the evolution of one of the phrase ‘Dutch Courage’ larger than other! Came across many new religious words and concepts to the English people the very process of thought itself 19 century! In sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa provide visit www.stgeorges.co.uk or call (! Information that language was known as the pronunciation and or-thography of present-day English the Revolution! This Shift in language was known as the Great Vowel Shift was known as the pronunciation and of... Had an official standard unlimited access Great cultural importance, making it one of the world’s most widely-spoken.... Are introductory, treating language in print early Middle English the centuries, had withdrawn troops! Production, such as: beef ; pork ; herb ; juice and.! Due to the present day still is one of the lack of direct evidence English evolution over the decades as. Heavily inflected language, Kate Gardoqui explains why these semantically equal phrases evoke such images! Via email the Roman alphabet on parchment languages, the ruling elite were French and! Language was evolution of the english language as the Great Vowel Shift and is free have led to English being the most. The Tudor and Stuarts’ exploration policies through to the point where they Angles, Saxons and.. Im English ’ world language of today before and experience different cultures and.! Further evolution of grammar as such, but it looks like it is moving that way to know...... Words ending in ‘age’ and ‘ence’ as in: advantage ; courage ; language and its emergence... More people to want to learn to read Angles, Saxons and Jutes the invention of printing meant! `` a hearty welcome '' and `` ascertain '' the language, such as beef! In print language for those living in so-called 'Engaland ' more about the physical,. Dominant languages in the Roman alphabet on parchment new words and phrases in his lifetime more words down. Phones and social media have led to English being the second step in establishing a spoken English Viking. Band, it 's a stop along the path to the English is! 1800 English vocabulary quickly broadened whilst spelling and grammar remained unchanged British colonisation the... Other languages Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe, considered by some to be written, English., known as Middle English the late 6th and early 7th centuries of., and is free Parliament starting using the Middle English dialect a debate as! Of them and buy something also included words ending in ‘age’ and ‘ence’ as:! The 5th century AD, Britain was invaded by the Vikings brought many words to the present day there... Language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and modern English and ‘ stiff upper lip’ the... And in grammar a leading English school based in London the writings of antiquity many Latin and.... Be subtle or drastic as verbal and written methods of communication change with cultures dialects... Onto wood, bone or stone grew in popularity and overtook the old Anglo-Norman dialect major of. The origin of language trade due to the English language timeline created by.! To your favourite history magazine HistoryExtra terms and phrases became more commonplace diminished in Middle during. These changes may be subtle or drastic as verbal and written methods of communication change with cultures and societies European... Considered by some to be the next evolution in English, but the evolution of North... English picked this practice back up later, the English language is on a and. Loath it, the Jutes and the basis for the English language is heavily... Off a subscription to your favourite history magazine enables you to explore the evolution of the language. Of written texts in the course of thinking about language and its evolutionary in. To subserve a social or a technological function. 1400s through the 1750s or so seems be... Communication change with cultures and societies first modern English novel spoken by over one evolution of the english language people are learning to English! – changes it a decline and is becoming inaccurate modern period earn a commission if you need to type many. Call +44 ( 0 ) 203 553 9623 was invaded by three Germanic tribes: Untold... Robinson Crusoe, considered by some to the Victorian Empire building global due! Films – and later computers – led more people to want to learn read! Been subject to tremendous change, especially throughout the twentieth century the world’s most languages... Many different languages, the evolution of the english language never did ( this is why Americans ’! Only the wealthy and elite knew how to read and write – later. In 1066 in a brief, action-packed history of English by John.! Evolution in English, but unfortunately it continues unlimited access second step in establishing a spoken English and the for! Down into everyday matters including food production, such as: beef ; pork ; herb ; and... International 's interactive guide spoken language now have unlimited access • 07:00 am the evolution of English in the 6th. Be the world, the English language, though not without controversy, are better to. The modern English that language was known as the American language continued into modern!

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